By the time Serbia regained control of Kosovo from Turkey in , there were few Serbs left in a region that had come to be dominated by ethnic Albanians. However, Tito eventually gave in to Kosovar demands for greater autonomy, and after Kosovo existed as independent state in all but name. In , Milosevic became president of Serbia and moved quickly to suppress Kosovo, stripping its autonomy and in sending troops to disband its government. Meanwhile, Serbian nationalism led to the dissolution of the Yugoslav federation in , and in the Balkan crisis deteriorated into civil war. A new Yugoslav state, consisting only of Serbia and the small state of Montenegro, was created, and Kosovo began four years of nonviolent resistance to Serbian rule. With arms obtained in Albania, the KLA stepped up its attacks in , prompting a major offensive by Serbian troops against the rebel-held Drenica region in February-March Dozens of civilians were killed, and enlistment in the KLA increased dramatically. In July, the KLA launched an offensive across Kosovo, seizing control of nearly half the province before being routed in a Serbian counteroffensive later that summer. The Serbian troops drove thousands of ethnic Albanians from their homes and were accused of massacring Kosovo civilians.
Yugoslavia , former federated country that was situated in the west-central part of the Balkan Peninsula. This article briefly examines the history of Yugoslavia from until , when it became the federated union of Serbia and Montenegro which further separated into its component parts in For more detail, see the articles Serbia , Montenegro , and Balkans. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kraljevina Jugoslavija , officially proclaimed in and lasting until World War II, covered 95, square miles , square km.
In addition to Serbia and Montenegro, it included four other republics now recognized as independent states: Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , North Macedonia , and Slovenia. In the union was disbanded, and two independent countries were formed.
x pp. 19 b&w photos., 4 maps. Pub Date: 09/26/ Available.
It came into existence after World War I in [B] under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs it was formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire with the Kingdom of Serbia , and constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state , following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign.
The kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers on 6 April In , a Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was proclaimed by the Partisan resistance. In King Peter II , then living in exile, recognised it as the legitimate government. The monarchy was subsequently abolished in November Yugoslavia was renamed the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia in , when a communist government was established.
It acquired the territories of Istria , Rijeka , and Zadar from Italy. Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito ruled the country as president until his death in Serbia contained two Socialist Autonomous Provinces, Vojvodina and Kosovo , which after were largely equal to the other members of the federation.
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Date: 10 March Subject: Yugoslavia: Information On Those With Connections To The United States, Especially Those Who Have Been.
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tions in all the republics of the former Yugoslavia during its violent dis- solution date of supporting the humanitarian operation. UNHCR places in the world.
This interdisciplinary project aims to investigate how post-Yugoslav literature and art remembers the heydays of socialist Yugoslavia ss and how these acts of remembrance critically intervene in the public sphere. Utilizing a dynamic understanding of cultural memory as a performative engagement with the past, this project will center on the following questions: 1 How do post-Yugoslav artistic practices act as curators of the socialist past in opposition to the dominant ideologies of nationalism and neoliberalism?
The cultural memory of the multinational socialist Yugoslavia, of its utopian potential as well as of its violent breakdown, has broad repercussions that strongly resonates with the endeavor of the European Union to create a shared European identity based on a common understanding of the European past. By providing an analysis of post-Yugoslav artistic practices of cultural remembering, the project will produce new knowledge on this specific case, provide a theoretical contribution to cultural memory studies, and contribute to broader current debates on a common European cultural memory and transnational identity.
Heidelberglaan 8 CS Utrecht Netherlands. Activity type. Higher or Secondary Education Establishments.
The nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics — Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Macedonia , Montenegro , Serbia , and Slovenia — with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina. Until , the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War , but after the Tito—Stalin split of , Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality.
It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement , and transitioned from a command economy to market-based socialism. Following the death of Tito on 4 May , the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment  and inflation. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe , inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation into a confederation also failed, with the two wealthiest republics Croatia and Slovenia seceding.
Ex-Yugoslavia Tour. |GROUP TOUR. DATE DATE DATE.
The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since in accordance with the provisions of the present Statute. The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons committing or ordering to be committed grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August , namely the following acts against persons or property protected under the provisions of the relevant Geneva Convention:.
The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons violating the laws or customs of war. Such violations shall include, but not be limited to:. The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons committing genocide as defined in paragraph 2 of this article or of committing any of the other acts enumerated in paragraph 3 of this article. Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:.
The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons responsible for the following crimes when committed in armed conflict, whether international or internal in character, and directed against any civilian population:. The International Tribunal shall have jurisdiction over natural persons pursuant to the provisions of the present Statute. A person who planned, instigated, ordered, committed or otherwise aided and abetted in the planning, preparation or execution of a crime referred to in articles 2 to 5 of the present Statute, shall be individually responsible for the crime.
The official position of any accused person, whether as Head of State or Government or as a responsible Government official, shall not relieve such person of criminal responsibility nor mitigate punishment. The fact that any of the acts referred to in articles 2 to 5 of the present Statute was committed by a subordinate does not relieve his superior of criminal responsibility if he knew or had reason to know that the subordinate was about to commit such acts or had done so and the superior failed to take the necessary and reasonable measures to prevent such acts or to punish the perpetrators thereof.
The fact that an accused person acted pursuant to an order of a Government or of a superior shall not relieve him of criminal responsibility, but may be considered in mitigation of punishment if the International Tribunal determines that justice so requires. The territorial jurisdiction of the International Tribunal shall extend to the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including its land surface, airspace and territorial waters.
The temporal jurisdiction of the International Tribunal shall extend to a period beginning on 1 January
Photo: Master Corporal Bernie Tessier. Department of National Defence ZN This publication is available upon request in alternate formats.
The essay surveys various attempts of Serbian intellectual and political elites to define Serbian national goals in relation to a socialist Yugoslavia. I s.
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